Clostridioides difficile, previously known as Clostridium difficile, has been recognized as an emerging nosocomial pathogen in recent years. Among hospitalized patients, it's a leading cause of increased mortality and morbidity. Earlier C. difficile infection (CDI) was not recognized for high morbidity and prolonged hospital stay. But, in last few decades due to uncontrolled usage of antibiotic and immunosuppressive drugs, CDI has increased in frequency and severity. Besides nonmodifiable risk factors, exposure to antibiotics is a single most modifiable risk factor. Various methods for diagnosis of CDI are known these days like toxigenic culture (TC) and cell cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA), available only in reference laboratories. Other methods like enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for toxins A, B, and/or glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are routinely used for CDI diagnosis; however, each diagnostic test has some limitations. Early CDI diagnosis is critical for early treatment and effective infection control measures to reduce the morbidity and mortality and preventing outbreak. Poor infection control practices further contribute in spread of CDI and environmental contamination by spores of C. difficile. Therefore, a correct and authentic diagnostic modality that can be used to characterize CDI vs colonization and making an effective infection control policy for CDI are urgently needed for prevention of occurrence of CDI.
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