Socioepidemiological Determinants of Human Immunodeficiency Virus associated Tuberculosis Coinfection in Northern India: A 1:2 Matched Case Control Study
Rakesh Khajuria, Sumeena Bajaj, Divyansh Bajaj
Antiretroviral therapy, Human immunodeficiency virus, Human immunodeficiency virus infection-associated tuberculosis coinfection, people living with HIV-AIDS, Tuberculosis
Citation Information :
Khajuria R, Bajaj S, Bajaj D. Socioepidemiological Determinants of Human Immunodeficiency Virus associated Tuberculosis Coinfection in Northern India: A 1:2 Matched Case Control Study. Journal of Medical Academics 2019; 2 (2):48-53.
Aims: Our study was designed to assess the sociodemographic correlates of human immunodeficiency virus infection-associated tuberculosis (HIV-TB) coinfection and elucidate its risk factors among patients attending a tertiary healthcare facility in Northern India. Materials and methods: A 1:2 case–control study, wherein the case group (patients with HIV-TB) was compared with two control groups: I group comprising patients with active tuberculosis (TB) [but without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)] and II group comprising HIV patients (who did not develop active TB during follow-up). Our questionnaire was designed to obtain data based on sociodemographic and detailed medical history. Results: Significant differences were observed on comparing gender, age, educational level, per capita income, place of residence, and occupational profile between case group and control group I. Case group was more likely to reside in urban areas (p = 0.001) and had a lower average level of formal education (p = 0.009) as compared to control group II. Conclusion: We found patients in the coinfected group to differ significantly from patients with active TB alone, but the trends were similar to the control group I. The most frequent high-risk behavior was observed to be unprotected sexual activity, which is in concordance with the national estimates by National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) and World Health Organization (WHO). Clinical significance: To minimize the prevalence of HIV-TB, controlling HIV transmission and disease progression in people living with HIV-AIDS (PLHAs) is crucial. Moreover, if the life expectancy of PLHAs is to be improved, HIV should be diagnosed early in the natural history of infection.
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